EE017 – Climate Change, Energy and Decentralized Solid Waste Management

ABSTRACT:

India Is The Second Largest Nation In The World, With A Population Of 1.21 Billion, Accounting For Nearly 18% Of World’s Human Population, But It Does Not Have Enough Resources Or Adequate Systems In Place To Treat Its Solid Wastes. Its Urban Population Grew At A Rate Of 31.8% During The Last Decade To 377 Million, Which Is Greater Than The Entire Population Of Us, The Third Largest Country In The World As per Population. India Is Facing A Sharp Contrast Between Its Increasing Urban Population And Accessible Services And Resources.

Strong Waste Management (Swm) Is One Such Service Where India Has An Gigantic Gap To Fill. Legitimate Municipal Solid Waste (Msw) Disposal Systems To Address The Burgeoning Measure Of Wastes Are Absent. The Current Swm Services Are Inefficient, Incur Heavy Expenditure And Are So Low As To Be A Potential Threat To The Public Health And Environmental Quality. Inappropriate Solid Waste Administration Deteriorates Public Health, Causes Environmental Pollution, Accelerates Natural Resources Corruption, Causes Climate Change And Greatly Impacts The Quality Of Life Of Citizens With Increasing Populace And Urbanization, Municipal Waste Management In Our Cities Is Emerging As A Major Problem, Which Is Going To Get Even Worse In The Future.

The Total Msw Generated In Urban India Is Estimated To Be 68.8 Million Tons Per Year (Tpy) Or 188,500 Tons Per Day (Tpd) Of Msw. This Will Lead To The Age Of Even More Wastes With Serious Implications For Urban Sanitation And Health, The Condition And Global Warming And Climate Change. Furthermore, Where Will This Waste Be Disposed, Taking into account That Large Cities In The Country Are Already Finding It Difficult To Locate The Land Needed To Arrange Their Waste? Of The Green House Gas (Ghg) Emissions (Which Include Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Etc) That Cause Global Climate Change, The Bulk, About 40 Per Cent, Comes From The Vitality And Transport Sectors. Different Sources Include Chemical-Intensive Agriculture, Particularly The Heavy Utilization Of Nitrogen Fertilizer, Which Accounts For 15-25 Per Cent, And Open And Decaying Urban Waste Dumps.

Studies Have Shown That Open Waste Dumps Contribute About 2 Per Cent Of The Total Global Ghg Outflows, Mainly Methane Which Traps Much More Heat Than Carbon Dioxide (But Is Less Abundant And Fleeting In The Atmosphere Than Carbon Dioxide). Open Waste Dumps Account For About 12 Per Cent Of The Total Global Emissions Of Methane. A StudyBy The Energy Research Institute (Teri), New Delhi, Assessed That, In 1997, Waste Dumps In India Released About 7 Million Tons Of Methane, And This Is Liable To Rise To 39 Million Tons By The Year 2047.

The Country’s Net Emissions (In Terms Of CarbonEquivalence) From Wastes Grew At 7.3 Per Cent Annually During The Period 1994-2007, According To A Ongoing Report By The Union Ministry Of Environment And Forests. Most Big Municipalities Continue To Dump Wastes In Open Grounds. Such Central Dump Sites Create Serious Health And Environmental Problems Also, Release Ghgs. Quite a bit Of These Wastes Going To Central Waste Dumps Can Be Reused And Recycled, Also, The Rest Converted Into Compost/Fertilizer And Energy (Methane And Electricity) Using Low-Cost Innovations. Other than Creating A Cleaner Environment, This Will Help Conserve Materials, Offer A Economical Source Of Renewable Energy And Reduce Ghg Emissions – Goals That Need To Be Strongly Sought after In The Face Of An Acute Shortage Of Energy And Climate Change.

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